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Ezra Shaw, Getty Images

25 Coolest Moments in Olympic Opening Ceremony History

Ezra Shaw, Getty Images
Ezra Shaw, Getty Images

The 2018 Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea kick off February 9. To celebrate, we're looking back on the most epic moments from opening ceremonies past. From jet packs to a parachuting queen, here's what South Korea has to follow when they welcome the world this Friday.

1. LOS ANGELES 1984 // OLYMPIC THEME DEBUTS

Composer John Williams.
Kevin Winter, Getty Images

Today, it's impossible to hear John Williams's "Olympic Fanfare and Theme" without thinking of the Olympics. But no one had heard the composition before it debuted at the 1984 Los Angeles Summer Games. That year, the score reached instant icon status and has been used as the theme for every Olympics held since.

2. LONDON 2012 // THE QUEEN JUMPS FROM A HELICOPTER

Person jumping from helicopter.
Lars Baron, Getty Images

What's more British than James Bond and the Queen? Her majesty and Agent 007 jumping from a helicopter to kick off the 2012 London Olympics. Though Queen Elizabeth II and Daniel Craig did appear together in footage that aired before the jump, the actual skydiving was done by stuntmen.

3. BEIJING 2008 // 2008 DRUMMERS

Drummers in a stadium.
Ezra Shaw, Getty Images

A decade after the fact, the opening ceremony of the 2008 Beijing games is still regarded as one of the greatest in Olympics history. It's hard to narrow down the four-hour event to just a few memorable moments, but the synchronized drum performance definitely makes the list. As a nod to the date, 2008 musicians filled the stadium to play the fou, a 4000-year-old Chinese percussion instrument. The choreographed precision of the drummers created a stunning spectacle when viewed from above.

4. ATLANTA 1996 // MUHAMMAD ALI CARRIES THE TORCH

Muhammad Ali with torch.
Michael Cooper, Allsport/Getty Images

One of the most anticipated moments of the 1996 opening ceremony was the reveal of who would light the centennial torch—and the appearance of Muhammad Ali in that role was met with approval and awe. His iconic torch-lighting took place 36 years after he earned his gold medal and 12 years after he was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. The surprise moment was among the most memorable of the events, but it almost didn't happen—the tower leading up to the torch would have been too difficult for Ali to climb in his condition. Officials worked around that by having him light a fuse that led up to the cauldron instead.

5. NAGANO 1998 // INTERNATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF "ODE TO JOY"

Olympic athletes.
Jamie Squire, Getty Images

In 1998, video-chatting with someone across the globe in real time was still considered stuff of the future. That's part of what made the rendition of Beethoven’s "Ode to Joy" at the opening ceremony of the 1998 Winter Olympics so impressive. As an orchestra performed live in Nagano, choruses in Berlin, Cape Town, Beijing, New York, and Sydney joined in via satellite feeds. On top of wowing audiences, the moment served as a meaningful symbol of world unity.

6. BARCELONA 1992 // AN ARCHER LIGHTS THE CAULDRON

Man with flaming arrow.
Pau Barrena, AFP/Getty Images

Though opening ceremonies vary wildly from year to year, the lighting of the torch is one theme they all share. This portion can be straightforward, but in 1992 Barcelona decided to get creative. The cauldron was ignited by Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo shooting a flaming arrow across the stadium. In terms of flair, no torch lighting has topped it since.

7. SYDNEY 2000 // 120 HORSEMEN

Sydney opera house.
Brendon Thorne, Getty Images

The opening ceremony of the 2000 Olympic games in Sydney was one of the most cinematic in history, and it was the very first moment that set the tone. A lone horseman came galloping into the empty stadium, and at the crack of his whip 120 more people riding horses and holding Olympic flags followed him in.

8. ALBERTVILLE 1992 // THE AIR BALLET

Air ballet performance.
Pascal Rondeau, Allsport/Getty Images

The opening ceremony of the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France channeled a Cirque du Soleil vibe. This was most apparent in the air ballet sequence. Dancers strapped into ribbons twirled and floated around a giant pole in the middle of the arena. The performance is regarded as one of the most mesmerizing in any opening ceremony.

9. LILLEHAMMER 1994 // SKIING WITH THE ETERNAL FLAME

Skier holding torch.
Bob Martin, Allsport/Getty Images

The torch lighting at the 1994 Winter Olympics was an exciting display of athleticism. It started with Norwegian skier Stein Gruben skiing down a steep slope and clearing a 70-meter jump all while holding the eternal flame. Olympic bronze medalist Gunnar Fidjestø was originally tasked with the stunt, but he injured himself in a practice jump two days before the event.

10. ATHENS 2004 // BJÖRK'S DRESS

Bjork performing.
Donald Miralle, Getty Images

Björk debuted her single "Oceania" at the opening ceremony of the summer games in Athens. The song is noteworthy on its own, but what really made her performance special was her giant dress that doubled as a projection screen. As the fabric rippled across the stadium, it displayed an image of the world map.

11. CALGARY 1988 // SEVENTH-GRADER LIGHTS THE CAULDRON

Person lighting Olympic torch.
Jamie Squire, Getty Images

The cauldron that holds the eternal flame has often been lit by superstar athletes, but in 1988, Canada chose 12-year-old Robyn Perry to complete the final leg of the torch's journey. The young lady was an amateur figure skater at the time.

12. LOS ANGELES 1984 // JETPACK FLIGHT

Man flying in jet pack.
Tony Duffy, Getty Images

One of the most futuristic stunts in any Olympic opening ceremony took place 34 years ago. Bill Suitor dazzled spectators when he zipped around the Los Angeles stadium in a real, functioning jetpack. He landed the gig by working as a test pilot on the jetpack project for Bell Aerospace. He told CNN in 2007 that trying to navigate the rocket belt felt like "trying to stand on a beach ball in a swimming pool."

13. BEIJING 2008 // BEIJING FIREWORKS SHOW

Fireworks over Olympic stadium.
Shaun Botterill, Getty Images

Another memorable scene from Beijing's opening ceremony was the epic fireworks show. Colorful pyrotechnics were launched from the rim of the stadium as more fireworks outside lit up the sky above the city. It was later revealed that many of the fireworks that aired in the ceremony were edited in with computers because it would have been too difficult to capture every explosion live.

14. MOSCOW 1980 // HUMAN PYRAMIDS

Athletes on a field.
Alexander Makarov, Wikimedia Commons // CC-BY-SA 3.0

The 1980 Moscow Olympics were controversial from the beginning, with several major nations boycotting the games in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. That didn't stop the Soviet Union from putting on a dazzling show for the opening ceremony. If attendees remember one spectacle, it's likely the colorful, human pyramids that filled the arena for the event's grand finale.

15. SEOUL 1988 // OLYMPIC RINGS SKYDIVERS

Olympic flag.
Getty Images/Getty Images North America

The five Olympic rings have been a part of the opening ceremony since the Antwerp games in 1920, but in 1988 they were seen like never before. Skydivers dressed in the event’s traditional colors formed the Olympic rings in midair before parachuting into the stadium. It would have likely been the most memorable sight from that year if it hadn't also included doves catching fire in the eternal flame.

16. SOCHI 2014 // RUSSIAN POLICE SING "GET LUCKY"

Russian officers singing.
Quinn Rooney, Getty Images

Like the Moscow Olympics, the 2014 games Russia hosted in Sochi weren't without controversy. But at least the opening ceremony gave us one of the more delightfully bizarre moments in the history of the event: a chorus of Russian police officers covering Daft Punk's international hit "Get Lucky." The cops were members of the Russian Red Army Choir.

17. ATHENS 1906 // FIRST PARADE OF NATIONS

Athens Olympics.
Getty Images

The Olympics as we know them today were just starting to take shape in the early 20th century. The Athens games in 1906 included the first parade of nations, one of the most recognizable opening ceremony traditions. The procession of teams carrying their home countries' flags introduced a theme of national pride to the Olympics that's still part of its DNA today.

18. BARCELONA 1992 // FREDDIE MERCURY'S "BARCELONA"

Barcelona Olympics opening ceremony.
Michel Gangne, AFP/Getty Images

Freddie Mercury died less than a year before the games took place, but his memory was very much alive at the Olympics opening ceremony in Barcelona in 1992. The Queen frontman was approached in the 1980s to pen a theme song for the event to sing with Barcelona-based opera singer Montserrat Caballé. The result, "Barcelona," became one of the best known Olympic songs, but Mercury was never able to sing it at the opening ceremony as planned; a video of an earlier Mercury and Caballé performance was played instead.

19. TOKYO 1964 // HIROSHIMA BABY LIGHTS THE CAULDRON

Man carrying olympic torch.
Keystone, Hulton Archive/Getty Images

The torch lighting at the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo is memorable for its poignancy. That year marked the first time the games were held in an Asian city, and Tokyo wanted to open the games with something that symbolized progress toward world peace and their resilience following World War II. Yoshinori Sakai, who was born in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, the same day the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on the city, was chosen to carry the torch to the cauldron.

20. RIO 2016 // GISELLE'S CATWALK

Giselle walking at Olympic opening ceremony.
Franck Fife, AFP/Getty Images

Few people have the star power to steal a show by simply walking in a straight line, but that's exactly what Gisele Bündchen accomplished at Rio's opening ceremony. All eyes were on the Brazilian supermodel as she strutted across the stadium's 400-foot catwalk. But she may have been enjoying her time in the spotlight a little too much—her pace was so slow that an entire scheduled segment had to be cut.

21. LONDON 2012 // MR. BEAN SHOWS UP

Rowan Atkinson looking at wrist.
Cameron Spencer, Getty Images

London turned the opening ceremony of the 2012 games into a quirky ode to British pop culture. While there were plenty of big-name appearances that night, one of the most pleasant surprises came from Rowan Atkinson, the actor best known for his character Mr. Bean. The comedian playing "Chariots of Fire" along with the London Symphony Orchestra might go down as one of the most hilarious moments in opening ceremony history.

22. SYDNEY 2000 // UNDERWATER EXTRAVAGANZA

Sydney Olympics opening ceremony.
Kazuhiro Nogi, AFP/Getty Images

With 16,000 miles of coastline, Australia is hugely influenced by the sea. The nation celebrated its neighboring oceans by transforming the Olympic stadium into a massive aquarium during the opening ceremony. Colorful puppets of fish, eels, and jellyfish floated through the space as the arena floor filled with rippling blue waves. In a country known for the world's most famous coral reef, it was a fitting tribute.

23. MOSCOW 1980 // MASSIVE CARD STUNT

Picture of bear in stadium crowd.
AFP/Getty Images

It's a trick you've seen at many sporting events, but for the Olympics, it must happen on a much larger scale. At the opening ceremony in Moscow, crowd members simultaneously held up hundreds of cards to form an image of Misha the Bear, that year's Olympic mascot.

24. TURIN 2006 // PAVAROTTI'S FINAL PERFORMANCE

Italian opera singer.
Getty Images/Stringer

Pavarotti didn't stay out of the limelight for long after retiring on his 70th birthday in 2005. He made an appearance at the opening ceremony of the Turin Winter Olympics and sang the aria "Nessun Dorma." He died the following year.

25. MONTREAL 1976 // TEEN ATHLETES LIGHT THE CAULDRON

Two teens stand next to the Olympic cauldron.
Tony Duffy, Getty Images

The Olympic cauldron was ignited by two teens at the start of the 1976 Montreal winter games. The lighters, 16-year-old track star Stéphane Préfontaine and 15-year-old Toronto runner Sandra Henderson, were chosen to present Canada as a young, progressive nation.

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13 Fascinating Facts About Nina Simone
Hulton Archive/Getty Images
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Nina Simone, who would’ve celebrated her 85th birthday today, was known for using her musical platform to speak out. “I think women play a major part in opening the doors for better understanding around the world,” the “Strange Fruit” songstress once said. Though she chose to keep her personal life shrouded in secrecy, these facts grant VIP access into a life well-lived and the music that still lives on.

1. NINA SIMONE WAS HER STAGE NAME.

The singer was born as Eunice Waymon on February 21, 1933. But by age 21, the North Carolina native was going by a different name at her nightly Atlantic City gig: Nina Simone. She hoped that adopting a different name would keep her mother from finding out about her performances. “Nina” was her boyfriend’s nickname for her at the time. “Simone” was inspired by Simone Signoret, an actress that the singer admired.

2. SHE HAD HUMBLE BEGINNINGS.


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There's a reason that much of the singer's music had gospel-like sounds. Simone—the daughter of a Methodist minister and a handyman—was raised in the church and started playing the piano by ear at age 3. She got her start in her hometown of Tryon, North Carolina, where she played gospel hymns and classical music at Old St. Luke’s CME, the church where her mother ministered. After Simone died on April 21, 2003, she was memorialized at the same sanctuary.

3. SHE WAS BOOK SMART...

Simone, who graduated valedictorian of her high school class, studied at the prestigious Julliard School of Music for a brief period of time before applying to Philadelphia’s Curtis Institute of Music. Unfortunately, Simone was denied admission. For years, she maintained that her race was the reason behind the rejection. But a Curtis faculty member, Vladimir Sokoloff, has gone on record to say that her skin color wasn’t a factor. “It had nothing to do with her…background,” he said in 1992. But Simone ended up getting the last laugh: Two days before her death, the school awarded her an honorary degree.

4. ... WITH DEGREES TO PROVE IT.

Simone—who preferred to be called “doctor Nina Simone”—was also awarded two other honorary degrees, from the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Malcolm X College.

5. HER CAREER WAS ROOTED IN ACTIVISM.

A photo of Nina Simone circa 1969

Gerrit de Bruin

At the age of 12, Simone refused to play at a church revival because her parents had to sit at the back of the hall. From then on, Simone used her art to take a stand. Many of her songs in the '60s, including “Mississippi Goddamn,” “Why (The King of Love Is Dead),” and “Young, Gifted and Black,” addressed the rampant racial injustices of that era.

Unfortunately, her activism wasn't always welcome. Her popularity diminished; venues didn’t invite her to perform, and radio stations didn’t play her songs. But she pressed on—even after the Civil Rights Movement. In 1997, Simone told Interview Magazine that she addressed her songs to the third world. In her own words: “I’m a real rebel with a cause.”

6. ONE OF HER MOST FAMOUS SONGS WAS BANNED.

Mississippi Goddam,” her 1964 anthem, only took her 20 minutes to an hour to write, according to legend—but it made an impact that still stands the test of time. When she wrote it, Simone had been fed up with the country’s racial unrest. Medger Evers, a Mississippi-born civil rights activist, was assassinated in his home state in 1963. That same year, the Ku Klux Klan bombed a Birmingham Baptist church and as a result, four young black girls were killed. Simone took to her notebook and piano to express her sentiments.

“Alabama's gotten me so upset/Tennessee made me lose my rest/And everybody knows about Mississippi Goddam,” she sang.

Some say that the song was banned in Southern radio stations because “goddam” was in the title. But others argue that the subject matter is what caused the stations to return the records cracked in half.

7. SHE NEVER HAD A NUMBER ONE HIT.

Nina Simone released over 40 albums during her decades-spanning career including studio albums, live versions, and compilations, and scored 15 Grammy nominations. But her highest-charting (and her first) hit, “I Loves You, Porgy,” peaked at #2 on the U.S. R&B charts in 1959. Still, her music would go on to influence legendary singers like Roberta Flack and Aretha Franklin.

8. SHE USED HER STYLE TO MAKE A STATEMENT.

Head wraps, bold jewelry, and floor-skimming sheaths were all part of Simone’s stylish rotation. In 1967, she wore the same black crochet fishnet jumpsuit with flesh-colored lining for the entire year. Not only did it give off the illusion of her being naked, but “I wanted people to remember me looking a certain way,” she said. “It made it easier for me.”

9. SHE HAD MANY HOMES.

New York City, Liberia, Barbados, England, Belgium, France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands were all places that Simone called home. She died at her home in Southern France, and her ashes were scattered in several African countries.

10. SHE HAD A FAMOUS INNER CIRCLE.

During the late '60s, Simone and her second husband Andrew Stroud lived next to Malcolm X and his family in Mount Vernon, New York. He wasn't her only famous pal. Simone was very close with playwright Lorraine Hansberry. After Hansberry’s death, Simone penned “To Be Young, Gifted and Black” in her honor, a tribute to Hansberry's play of the same title. Simone even struck up a brief friendship with David Bowie in the mid-1970s, who called her every night for a month to offer his advice and support.

11. YOU CAN STILL VISIT SIMONE IN HER HOMETOWN.

Photo of Nina Simone
Amazing Nina Documentary Film, LLC, CC BY-SA 4.0, Wikimedia Commons

In 2010, an 8-foot sculpture of Eunice Waymon was erected in her hometown of Tryon, North Carolina. Her likeness stands tall in Nina Simone Plaza, where she’s seated and playing an eternal song on a keyboard that floats in midair. Her daughter, Lisa Simone Kelly, gave sculptor Zenos Frudakis some of Simone’s ashes to weld into the sculpture’s bronze heart. "It's not something very often done, but I thought it was part of the idea of bringing her home," Frudakis said.

12. YOU'VE PROBABLY HEARD HER MUSIC IN RECENT HITS.

Rihanna sang a few verses of Simone’s “Do What You Gotta Do” on Kanye West’s The Life of Pablo. He’s clearly a superfan: “Blood on the Leaves” and his duet with Jay Z, “New Day,” feature Simone samples as well, along with Lil’ Wayne’s “Dontgetit,” Common’s “Misunderstood” and a host of other tracks.

13. HER MUSIC IS STILL BEING PERFORMED.

Nina Revisited… A Tribute to Nina Simone was released along with the Netflix documentary in 2015. On the album, Lauryn Hill, Jazmine Sullivan, Usher, Alice Smith, and more paid tribute to the legend by performing covers of 16 of her most famous tracks.

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13 Secrets From the Guinness Archives
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Leon Neal/AFP/Getty Images

Guinness has been a staple in Irish pubs for nearly 260 years. With so much history, it's no surprise that the Guinness Storehouse Archives—which are open to the public—are stuffed with intriguing artifacts that tell some pretty wild stories. Here are a few.

1. THE LEASE TO THE DUBLIN BREWERY WAS INTENDED TO LAST 9000 YEARS.

In 1759, founder Arthur Guinness signed a lease for a four-acre property at St. James’s Gate in Dublin. The lease required a down payment of £100, an annual rent of £45, and a term of 9000 years (not a typo). Such lengthy leases were relatively common back then: “At the time in Ireland, there was a lot of instability to do with land tenure,” explains Fergus Brady, Archives Manager at Guinness. Centuries earlier, the British had begun confiscating land from native Irish in an effort to build plantations, and extra-long leases were a means of avoiding this fate. As Brady explains, “You see these really long leases: 99-year or 999-year leases. It seemed to be a legal custom at the time that they used the number nine.”

2. ARTHUR GUINNESS WAS NOT AFRAID TO DEFEND HIS PROPERTY WITH A PICKAXE.

In 1775, the Dublin Corporation—that is, the city government—demanded that Arthur Guinness pay for the spring water flowing to his brewery. When Guinness argued that he was already paying for water rights through his 9000-year rental agreement, the Dublin Corporation sent a sheriff and a committee to his brewery to cut off the water supply. Guinness was livid. He seized a pickaxe and unleashed a torrent of obscenities so colorful that the Dublin Corporation’s goons eventually retreated.

3. GUINNESS ONCE DEPLOYED FIELD AGENTS TO CATCH COUNTERFEITERS.

Guinness Apology
Guinness Archive, Diageo Ireland

In the 19th century, there was no such thing as brand consistency. Guinness did not bottle its own beer; instead, it shipped the suds in wooden casks to publicans who supplied their own bottles and applied their own personalized labels. Occasionally, these publicans sold fake or adulterated Guinness. To prevent such sales, the company sent special agents called “travellers” into the field to collect beer samples, which it tested in a laboratory. “If a publican was found to be serving adulterated or counterfeit Guinness, they had to give a public apology in their local newspaper—and even the national newspapers,” archivist Jessica Handy says.

4. FOR 21 YEARS, THE COMPANY HIRED A GUY TO TRAVEL THE WORLD AND DRINK BEER.

In 1899, Guinness hired an American ex-brewer named Arthur T. Shand to be a “Guinness World Traveller.” It was arguably the coolest job in the world. For 21 years, Shand traveled the world taste-testing beer. According to Brady, “His job was to travel the world and taste Guinness, say whether it was good or bad, who our bottlers in the market were, who our major competition was, what kind of people were drinking our product.” Shand traveled to Australia and New Zealand, to Southeast Asia and Egypt. “He was sort of a Guinness sommelier,” Brady says.

5. THE COMPANY'S HARP LOGO CAUSED TROUBLE WITH THE IRISH GOVERNMENT.

The Celtic harp—based on the 14th century “Brian Boru Harp” preserved at Trinity College—became a trademarked Guinness logo in 1876. Forty-five years later, when Ireland gained independence from England, the Irish Free State decided to use the same Celtic harp as its official state emblem. This became awkward. Guinness owned the trademark, and the Irish government was forced to search for a workaround. You can find their solution on an Irish Euro coin. Look at the coin, and you’ll notice that the harp’s straight edge faces the right; meanwhile, the harp on a glass of Guinness shows the straight edge facing left [PDF].

6. GUINNESS REPORTEDLY SAVED LIVES ON THE BATTLEFIELD.

The old slogan “Guinness is good for you” sounds like a marketing gimmick, but it was born out of a genuine belief that the beer was, in fact, a restorative tonic. The health claim dates back to 1815, when an ailing cavalry officer wounded at the Battle of Waterloo reportedly credited Guinness for his recovery. For decades, the medical community widely claimed that the dark beer possessed real health benefits—and they weren’t necessarily wrong. “There was little safe drinking water at the time,” Handy says. “But with brewing, consumers knew they were getting a safe beverage.”

7. THE COMPANY CREATED A SPECIAL RECIPE FOR CONVALESCENTS.

A label for Guinness invalid stout
Guinness Archive, Diageo Ireland

From the 1880s to the 1920s, Guinness produced a special “Nourishing Export Stout”—a.k.a. “Invalid Stout”—that contained extra sugars, alcohol, and solids and came in cute one-third pint bottles. “It was very common practice for people to buy a couple bottles and keep them as a tonic, even if it was just a glass or half a glass,” Handy says. In fact, Guinness went as far as asking general practitioners for testimonials attesting to the beer’s medical benefits. According to Brady, “Many of them wrote back and said yes, we prescribe this for various ailments.” One doctor even claimed a pint was “as nourishing as a glass of milk.”

8. DOCTORS REGULARLY PRESCRIBED THE BEER TO NURSING MOTHERS.

From the 1880s to the 1930s, many physicians believed Guinness was an effective galactagogue—that is, a lactation aid. The company sent bottles to hospitals as well as wax cartons of yeast (which supposedly helped skin problems and migraines). Hundreds, possibly thousands, of doctors prescribed the beer for ailments such as influenza, insomnia, and anxiety, David Hughes writes in A Bottle of Guinness Please: The Colourful History of Guinness. According to Brady, the company was sending beer to hospitals as late as the 1970s.

9. THE COMPANY ONCE DROPPED 200,000 MESSAGES-IN-A-BOTTLE INTO THE OCEAN.

A Guinness message in a bottle
The message within every bottle dropped in the Atlantic Ocean in 1959.
Guinness Archive, Diageo Ireland

In 1954, Guinness dumped 50,000 messages-in-a-bottle in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. In 1959, they repeated the stunt again, with 38 ships dropping 150,000 bottles in the Atlantic. The first bottle was discovered in the Azores off Portugal just three months after the initial drop [PDF]. Since then, the bottles have turned up in California, New Zealand, and South Africa. Just last year, a bottle was discovered in Nova Scotia. (If you find one, you just might be offered a trip to the Guinness Storehouse in Dublin.)

10. THE PERSONNEL FILES IN THE GUINNESS ARCHIVES CONTAIN SOME DOOZIES.

The Guinness corporate archives are open to the public. According to Handy, “Some of the stories you get in there are amazing, because you get accident reports and you get crazy stories of people bouncing on bags of hops outside the brewery." This may sound less surprising considering that, back in the day, Guinness employees were given an allowance of two pints of beer every day [PDF].

11. A GUINNESS SCIENTIST MADE A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT MARK IN THE FIELD OF STATISTICS.

If you’ve taken a statistics class, you might be familiar with the Student’s t-test or the t-statistic. (It’s a method of working with a small sample size when the standard deviation is unknown.) The t-test was first described by William S. Gosset, a brewer and statistician at Guinness who was attempting to analyze a small sample of malt extract. Gosset’s discovery not only helped Guinness create a more consistent-tasting beer, it would lay the bedrock for one of the most important concepts in statistics: statistical significance.

12. GUINNESS IS SO BIG IN AFRICA, IT LAUNCHED A SUCCESSFUL FEATURE-LENGTH FILM.

Guinness began exporting beer to Africa in 1827. In the 1960s, it opened a brewery in Nigeria—followed by Cameroon and Ghana. Today, there are reportedly more Guinness drinkers in Nigeria than there are in Ireland. “In Ireland, England, and the United States, everybody thinks that Guinness is synonymous with Ireland,” Brady says. “But in Nigeria, there’s a very very low conception of that.” The beer is such a cultural staple that a fictional character who advertised the product named Michael Power—a James Bond-like, crime-fighting journalist—became the star of a feature film in 2003 called Critical Assignment, which was a box office smash. (Of course, there’s some branding built into the script. As Brady explains, “There are definitely scenes where Michael Power is enjoying a pint of Guinness.”)

13. DISPENSING BEER WITH NITROGEN WAS ORIGINALLY CONSIDERED LAUGHABLE.

In the 1950s, Guinness scientist Michael Ash was tasked with solving the “draft problem.” At the time, dispensing a draft pint of Guinness was ridiculously complicated, and the company was losing market share to draft lagers in Britain that could be easily dispensed with CO2. “The stout was too lively to be dispensed with CO2 only,” Brady says. “Ash worked on the problem for four years, working long hours day or night, and became a bit of a recluse apparently. A lot of doubters at the brewery called the project ‘daft Guinness.’” But then Ash attempted dispensing the beer with plain air. It worked. The secret ingredient, Ash discovered, was nitrogen. The air we breathe is 78 percent nitrogen. Today, a Guinness draft contains 75 percent nitrogen. Not only did the discovery make dispensing the beer easier, it created a creamy mouthfeel that’s been the signature of Irish stouts since.

Full disclosure: Guinness paid for the author to attend an International Stout Day festival in 2017, which provided the opportunity to speak to their archivists.

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